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Restoring the Georgian Structure

Georgian architecture carries features of architectural expression throughout the Anglo-Saxon world between 1714 and 1830. Generally speaking, it is marked by an emphasis on symmetry, while the proportions are mostly taken from the early Renaissance period, which in turn was based on the ancient architecture of Greece and Rome.

Georgian Carpentry Standards
According to Peter Nicholson (1812.) and William Pain (1815.) compared to Baston House (Case Study)

The Beams.jpg
Small Rafters.jpg
Bearing Posts.jpg
Binding Joists.jpg
Bridging Joists.jpg
Principal Rafters.jpg
Scheme 01 roof_edited.jpg

Note: Definitions of the names of certain parts of the roof structure are relative in this case because over decades, with each subsequent renovation, certain original parts were removed and new ones were added, often by unprofessional construction works that partially degraded the original structure with some improvised supports and additions.

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Baston house: A system of original first-floor pine beams that were removed due to poor and dilapidated condition and replaced with Wickes Treated Kiln Dried C24 Regularized Timber - 45 x 195.

Credits: Architettura Ltd.

Nicholson rafters fig 1.jpg

Plan of a floor where the joists would have too great a bearing without a girder, and where the walls in the middle of the apartment are perforated with windows below (Nicholson, 1812).

Nicholson rafters fig 2.jpg

Explanation of the timbers in a double floor.

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Baston house: Disturbed notches in the outer stone wall intended to hold the load-bearing beams of the first floor.               

Credits: Architettura Ltd.

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Baston house: Ceiling beam system on the first floor before removal. The central beam was left in place.                        

Credits: Architettura Ltd.

Part of the trusses, 1812..jpg

Fig 1.
Section of a Double floor, with a girder, taken transversely to the bridging joists. 
A section of Girder. 
B-C Binding joists.
d, d, d, & c ends of Bridging joists.
c, c, c, & c ends of Ceiling joists, chase morticed into binding joists.

Fig 2.
Section of a Double floor, taken transversely to the binding joist.
A-A sections of the Binding joists.
B-C is part of a Bridging joist.
D-E Ceiling joists.
E-F parts of Ceiling joists.

Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 show the manner of Scarfing or lengthening of beams.

Fig 3. An oblique Plain scarf.
Fig 4. A single oblique Tabled scarf.
Fig 5. A Parallel scarf keyed together.
Fig 6. The method of building beams with small pieces.

The third, fourth, and fifth figures must be firmly bolted with at least two bolts.
Fig 4 and 5 have each an opening for a key to be driven through, which must be done previously to the bolting. These beams would be much stronger at the scarfing, if an iron strap were placed on each side of it, in order to resist the heads and nuts of the screws more effectually than the wood.

Fig 7 a truss for a Span roof.
A-A Wallplates.
B-C Tie beam.
C-D King post, crown post, or middle post.
E-F Struts.
g-h Puncheons.
I-G Principal rafters.
K-K Pole plate.
L-L sections of Purlines.
K-M small rafters.
M-M Ridge piece section.

Roof trusses according to William Pain, 1815.


Structurally enforcing the main triple beam with steel plates 

Credits: Architettura Ltd.

Section S - N westbound total.jpg

A stylized view of the longitudinal section of a house in Baston in the North-South section (proposed final version). Drawn by Daniel Borosa.

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